In this glossary, we hope to cover everything you wanted to know about shipments and the cross border logistics world.
Access Token: An access token is a unique string of symbols, generally letters or numbers, that serve as an identification credential and ensure secure login to a given application. The token authenticates the user’s identity and confirms which privileges they are authorized to access.
ACH: Automatic Clearing House: A computer-based network for financial transactions that enables banks to directly connect to one another to deposit or withdraw funds. Examples of transactions completed through an ACH include direct deposits and credit card/debit transactions. These transactions usually complete on one or more predetermined days of the week.
Ad Valorem: A Latin term that, in the shipping world, generally refers to the charging of (customs, duties, tax, etc.) payments in proportion to the estimated value of the item being shipped.
Advance Ship Notice (ASN): Usually sent in a digital format, this is a complete inventory list of pending shipping deliveries and contains additional information, such as a Tracking Number, shipment configuration description, and other relevant details. It can be used as a means for billing, as well as to ascertain that all order items are accounted for.
AMP: Advanced Mail Preparation: This is a process in which the customer prepares the package for shipping by printing sort code information directly onto the label, eliminating the need for other supply chain players to re-label the packages, thereby accelerating processing times.
ATA Carnet: is an international customs and temporary exportation document. It is used to enable merchandise to clear customs and enter 87 countries and territories around the world, without having to pay any import taxes or duties. A carnet is granted to goods scheduled to be re-exported within 12 months of their importation.
BEDE: Barcode Embedded Data Encoding: A “one-touch” automated processing method that sorts/identifies shipments by their designated destination zip codes, embedded into a one-of-a-kind barcode.
BOL; Consignment Note; CN: Bill of Lading: A legal document that lists the critical and descriptive details of items being shipped, usually in the cases of international trade, for the purpose of streamlining understandings and processes between shippers and carriers. The BOL must be signed by a representative of the shipper, the carrier and the receiver, and must travel with the shipment, at all times.
Bonded Goods: are goods that are subject to duties and are currently being held by customs authorities in a secure, bonded warehouse. The goods may be released to the importer, upon the payment of duties, or other relevant fees. Alternatively, they can be released for re-export.
Brokerage: The services of a third party whose role is to enable the clearing of customs for inbound and/or outbound shipments.
Cargo Manifest: A master list of all the items within a shipment or unit of a shipment, used by the shipping personnel to summarize all bills of lading issued for a given transport. Generally includes product details, important numbers, the identity of the consignors and consignees, and more.
Certificate of Origin: This is a document that specifically names the country in which given goods were manufactured. It serves as a declaration by the shipment’s importer and certifies that the goods were wholly obtained, produced and prepared for exportation.
CMR: An abbreviation for “Convention relative au contrat de transport international de marchandises par route,” an international convention signed by the United Nations in 1956 and used in cross border road transport as a means for regulating and creating uniformity within the realm of road transport contracts.
Commercial invoice: A customs document that lists all items being shipped internationally, their exact description, true value and relevant shipping information, in order to determine whether taxes and/or duties must be leveraged.
Commercial Summary Invoice: A customs document detailing all of the separate orders invoiced in the shipment and attached to the shipment’s first pallet. This document is not required for all international shipments, but is for some, like for Trade lane DE-CN. It must contain a complete and detailed list of the total number of each article sold, their total purchase value as individual items, in addition to as a single unit.
Consignee: The receiver of a shipment, the person to whom the delivery or package is sent or delivered. This can be the buyer, or an intermediary, like a freight forwarder. The consignee pays for the delivery of a package.
Consignment: The item or items being shipped by the carrier to the consignee.
Consignor: The person or company sending the shipment to its destination address.
Consolidation: The act of combining multiple items into a single shipments, or multiple shipments into one, for the purpose of reducing transportation rates.
Consular Invoice: This is a document that is certified by the consulate of the shipment’s destination country and is required by select countries’ governments for the purpose of more stringent import control. It details the and certifies the shipment of goods from one country to another.
Conveyable: Parcels that are conveyable are stable and are not fragile: they are safe for transportation on conveyor belts. Parcels that are not conveyable may have special signs printed on them indicated items inside are made from glass, contain liquid or are packed in plastic bags. Conveyable items must not exceed certain maximum dimensions, which can differ in light of countries’ unique regulations and transportation equipment.
Cost, Insurance, and Freight (CIF) value: The sum of all retail, insurance and freight costs, tabulated for the purpose of determining taxes by destination countries’ customs agents when shipping internationally.
Courier service: A parcel and document delivery company. Usually a private company that charges higher rates than a country’s postal services, typically in exchange for faster, more reliable service.
Customer Service Agreement or CSA: is a signed contract that details the scope of the service to be provided to the customer by the service provider. It injects transparency into any shipping agreement and therefore promotes a sense of trust.
Customs Duty: is a tax taken at the time of import when merchandise enters a sovereign nation. Normally the tax is based on an estimation of the value shipment, weight, or a combination of these and other elements.
Custom Encoding Rules: A set of unique classification rules that enable seamless package receiving, sorting, mixing, and transporting. The rules can be based upon product and weight.
Customs brokers: Professionals who represent importers and exporters and serve as their intermediaries vis-a-vis Customs proceedings. They generally assume responsibility for the entire Customs clearing process, from ensuring documentation submission, to making relevant payments and arranging for inland transportation services.
Customs Declaration: A statement or action, usually in the form of written documentation, that lists all goods being shipped to that country, as required by Customs.
Cut-off time: The cut-off time is the latest time we guarantee same day order fulfillment.
Dangerous goods or DG: Items that could cause harm to persons’ health or safety, or to the environment when under transportation conditions and must, therefore, be handled with extra care. Examples of DG sold via e-commerce include alcohol, lithium ion batteries, and liquids. The exact definition of DG is determined by IATA, the international organization charged with regulating air travel.
Dead weight: the mass of your package, including all packaging materials.
Delivered Duty Unpaid or DDU, also Non-Free Domicile; Non-Free Dom; DTU: Items labeled as DDU or DTU are liable for duty and other customs clearing payments – which are not included in the shipping costs. These payments are to be paid by the recipient prior to delivery.
Delivered Duty Paid or DDP, also Free Domicile; Free Dom; DTP : This means that any duty or customs cleaning payments have already been covered by the recipient during the checkout process and the items can be delivered straight to their destination, following their coordination by the merchant.
Delivery Confirmation or DC: Notification of the date and time of a shipment’s attempted or successful delivery, for tracking and confirmation purposes.
De minimis value: The shortened version of the Latin expression “de minimis non curat lex.” In English: “the law does not care about very small matters.” In practical terms, the minimum value on which duties and taxes are to be collected – smaller amounts are deemed a waste of time to collect.
Delivery signature (or proof of delivery or delivery confirmation): The recipient must sign for the parcel, in order for the parcel to be released into their possession and fulfillment to be complete. In some cases, the recipient must be the person to sign; in other cases, an indirect signature, at the hand of a friend or neighbor, is sufficient.
Denied Parties: Any person or entity with whom one cannot legally enter into a contract for the supply of goods or services.
Destination Country: The country where the consignee is located and to where the shipment is headed.
Dimensional Weight/Volumetric Weight: The translation of a parcel’s dimensions into weight for easy calculation purposes.
Dimension Range: How long, tall and wide any given item can be, and still be shipped along a particular trade route.
Drop-off: A process in which consignments directly enter the shipping network upon being delivered to an injection point by the customer.
Delivery Service Provider or DSP: The private or public intermediary responsible for the delivery of mail and parcel items.
DSP Label: The final label a parcel receives prior to being delivered to the recipient by the DSP. The DSP label tends to contain a tracking number, for easy identification.
DSP Tracking Number: A unique set of digits that link the shipment item to its process in the fulfillment chain. Usually appears together with the recipient’s name, a timestamp and location status.
EAN: European Article Code
eBOL: Electronic Bill of Lading – A digital version of the legal document that carriers create and issue to shippers. It contains detailed information on the shipment’s contents, for confirmation and billing purposes.
Electronic trade: See below: Paperless trade.
Endorsement: Directs a DSP on how to handle non-deliverable mail items for US domestic shipments. Options are Forward Service Requested; Change Service Requested; Return Service Requested; Address Service Requested. If a DSP utilizes the service endorsement, they will charge our business customers directly via a Centralized Account Processing System (CAPS) account or postage due to delivery. Endorsements must be printed for a package that has active Delivery Confirmation.
Exchange Rate: How much one currency can be exchanged for another.
Expedited shipping: Any shipping method that promises faster fulfillment than standard shipping processes might provide. Usually same or next-day and at a higher cost than standard shipping services.
Exportation: The shipping of items across international borders.
Exporter of Record: An individual or entity responsible for can be an individual or an entity who is responsible for the smooth and successful clearance of exportations. They are charged with documentation, regulation upholding and final arrival, on penalty of severe criminal and civil punishment.
First-mile delivery: The first stage in the logistics supply chain. During this stage, the parcel is either dropped off at a designated location by the sender, or is picked up by a shipping service provider.
Forwarder , or freight forwarder. A person of entity responsible for coordinating the shipment of goods from the manufacturer or producer to a customer or end-buyer. The forwarder does not ship them items themselves, but rather contacts the shipping process out to one or more carriers within their logistics network. Also known as a non-vessel operating common carrier (NVOCC).
Flat rate shipping: The process in which a parcel is shipped for a single, predetermined rate. The rate is not subject to change in accordance with the parcel’s dimensions or weight.
Free Zone: An area within a country that is not subject to that country’s customs regulations. Examples include seaports, airports, warehouses and the like. Free Zones are therefore ideal locations for importers to bring goods of foreign origin – they can save money by not having to pay customs duties and taxes. Other names for Free Zones include “free ports,” “free warehouses,” “free trade zones” and “foreign trade zones.”
Fulfillment: Fulfillment is a term for the process in which the merchant takes action to supply the customer with their purchased order, from point-of-sales entry, to last-mile delivery.
Fulfillment center: A physical location, such as a warehouse, in which inventory is stored and prepared to be shipped to the recipient.
Fully Landed Costs or FLC: The final cost tally a recipient must pay in exchange for the release of an imported shipment. Can include shipping costs, local taxes and duties.
GST: Goods and Services Tax, a value-added tax on most goods and services sold within the domestic consumer market. Consumers pay the GST upon completing their purchase, and it is then forwarded to the government by the business who sold the goods and services.
Harmonized System or HS code: The Harmonized Item Description and Coding System, or HS code, is an international system that classifies traded products, and identifies them according to 6-digit number sets. Maintained by the World Customs Organization (WCO), HS codes are required for international Customs declarations purposes.
Hub: A parcel sorting and re-distribution facility.
Identcode: A numerical parcel identification code.
Import: The act of shipping goods from a foreign country into one’s home country.
Import duty: The fee levied on goods imported from a foreign country, in the form of the absolute value of payable tax. The goal: safeguard domestic markets.
Importer of Record or IOR: An entity or individual responsible for the safe and lawful importation of goods. The title includes the responsibility for filing all legally required documents, as well as for upholding all relevant safe importation laws.
Inbound: Refers to the direction of logistics activities (transportation, storage, delivery, etc.) being business-forward (entering the business).
Incoterms or ICT: are terms set by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), that determine the costs associated with transporting and delivering goods cross-border and determine whether the sender or the receiver will be paying.
Insurance: A payment that guarantees monetary reimbursement in the event that a hazard befalls their shipment.
Insurance Certificate: A document that is used to cover loss or damage to the insured cargo being shipped.
Insurance Policy: A contract that stipulates the terms of the insurance taken out.
Intended Returns: These are shipments that were delivered to the recipient, but the recipient wishes to return.
Item: Another term for the individual units in an order.
Label: An identification tag that minimally details the addresses of the shipment’s sender and recipient. Legible labels must be affixed to each parcel.
Labeling: the process of attaching a label (see above) onto a parcel.
Landed Cost: The cost of the imported goods upon entry into a country, minus charges occurring following the item’s departure from the import point. Can include freight, insurance, port and docking costs.
Last-mile delivery: The final stage in any logistics supply chain, during which the parcel is delivered to the recipient.
Manifest: A detailed list of all items being transported from one business partner to another, using a shipping provider. The list ensures that all items are accounted for, at all times.
Merchant: A person or business involved in selling and supplying merchandise to recipients or members of a trade. The merchant sends out purchases in the form of parcel shipments.
Material Safety Data Sheet or MSDS: A document that enables safe handling of a product by providing information on potential usage hazards.
Paperless trade (also electronic trade): A process in which the shipper is able to file customs documents via the internet, rather than having to spend money and waste paper on printing and sending in hard copy documents.
Order Fulfillment: The complete process in which orders are received by warehouses from merchants, processed and shipped to end-customers.
Order item: Units within a greater order.
Outbound: Logistics processes pertaining to goods leaving a business and being shipped to the recipient.
Postal service: Public or national government-run shipping companies. Cheaper, but not necessarily as streamlined at fulfilling shipments as private shipping companies.
Phytosanitary Certificate: A certificate issued by a government agency that ascertains that the importation of plants, plant products, or other regulated materials meet foreign countries’ importation regulations, have been inspected and are pest and disease-free.
Pick and Pack: A process in which an order is compiled by gathering together individual inventory items, packaging them as a unit and shipping them to their destination as a single order.
Pickup: The process of collecting consignments from a merchant for the purpose of shipping them.
Pickup and Delivery or PuD: A shipping service that includes multiple processes: route planning and preparation, on route, post route, dispatching, debriefing, and processing.
Pick Up Drop off Point or PUDO: A location that recipients can visit in order to pick up or drop off parcels, without having to wait for a first or last-mile courier. Often, these locations are local shops or retail stores that offer PUDO services in addition to their regular activities.
Piece: Units within a shipment. Each piece is packaged and handled separately.
Preference (or Preferential) Duty: A reduced duty rate that is tabulated with respect to the value of the goods and the country it was imported from.
Pro-forma Invoice: An estimated invoice provided by a merchant to the recipient prior to the merchandise’s shipment, outlining what is being sent, in what quantities, what their value is, and other relevant specifications. This is not a demand for payment.
Proof of Delivery or POD: A signature made by the recipient upon receiving the shipment, or other form of confirmation.
Receiving: The acknowledgement that an item or items have been received and will be moved to processing, ahead of shipping.
Recipient: The individual or entity whose name the shipment is addressed to and who ultimately is meant to receive the parcel. The final player in the sales fulfillment cycle.
Return: A shipment that is sent back to the consignor after fulfillment is complete, for a variety of reasons.
Routing code: A series of machine-readable numbers that enable the parcel to be identified across the system network. Based on codes for street and house number or postal zip codes.
Return label: A pre-paid, pre-addressed shipping label that customers can use to return elivered goods to the seller, without having to pay any extra shipping fees. The return shipping fee would then be charged to the seller.
Safe place: A location named by the recipient, where the parcel can be left, in the event that the recipient is not available at the time of delivery. It is recommended that the location be inaccessible by third parties.
Sales Tax: is a consumption tax levied by a destination country’s government on the sales of goods and services. It is levied from the sales task of said goods and services.
Second delivery attempt: A second attempt at delivering the parcel to the recipient, in the event that the first attempt was unsuccessful. Usually one or two days later.
Security area: A designated area for storing and processing parcels that have yet to clear Customs.
Service Point: A dedicated parcel drop-off and pick-up location, typically located at or near Depot or Hub facilities, or in special offices..
Shipping account: An account or a contract with the shipping carrier, containing personal information such as transaction history, address and payment information. Some carriers may provide shipping accounts with high volume or high frequency treatments with more favorable shipping rates, credit terms, etc.
Shipping insurance: Insurance that protects the merchant against loss or damage caused to the parcel during the fulfillment process. There is generally a basic coverage fee, with options to increase coverage, at an additional cost.
Shipment: A quantity of goods, or consignment, packaged as a unit and requiring transportation transportation from one location to another. The shipment process begins upon the shipment leaving the consignor’s location and ends upon arrival at the consignee’s destination.
Shipper: The merchant or other person in charge of sending the parcels to the buyer. An e-commerce platform may or may not be involved.
Shipping Profile: An account containing is specific shipping details as they relate to products, weights, destinations, etc., so that all fulfillment process touch points are maximally informed, to prevent miscommunications and mix ups and ensure each parcel reaches the correct recipient in a timely fashion.
Stock Keeping Unit or SKU: A product identifier, as defined by the merchant.
Service Level Agreement or SLA: A commitment between a service provider and a client regarding the quality, availability, responsibilities and other service-relevant aspects.
Stack factor: The number of outbound processed pallet pieces vs. how much loaded floor space and how many online hauls are available for stacking.
Tariff: The percentage of tax to be added to the cost of the item being imported into a given foreign country.
Tariff-Code: (also see HS Code) – Destination Country Customs Code four countries where duty and tax rates apply. 8 -11 digits where the first six digits are always the HS-Code. The number of digits varies according to destination country.
Thermal label: An economic and efficient form of printed shipping labels, using thermal heat instead of ink or toner.
Threshold: The maximum value an item can hold without having to pay taxes vs. the minimum value a item must hold for taxes to apply. Or, when a package(s) is left by the door (or threshold of a building), as opposed to the delivery person entering to hand it over.
Time definite: A guaranteed delivery time and date.
Time window delivery: An agreed upon time slot for parcel delivery.
Track Event: The definition of where and when a shipment is at any point during the fulfillment process. Represented by – date/time – location – object – activity type (= status).
Tracking ID: A means for identifying a parcel and its status throughout the fulfillment process. Sellers and recipients alike are provided with the tracking ID, injecting a sense of transparency and comfort to the process as a whole.
Undeliverables: Goods that cannot be delivered to the recipient.
UN 38.3 Test Report: A certification that ensures that lithium-ion batteries can be safely transported via air cargo. Usually required in addition to MSDS.
Value Added Tax (VAT): Also known as Goods and Services Tax. A consumption tax that is applied to purchased goods at the destination country.
Volumetric weight or dimensional weight: The space that a parcel takes up in a shipping container. Calculated by multiplying the parcel’s length, width, and height, and then dividing this number by a cubic divisor. As larger parcels take up more carrier space than heavier parcels, carriers may compare volumetric weight to actual weight and charge according to the larger number.
Warehouse Management System or WMS: A web-based system for the management of a store’s inventory within a warehouse.
Waybill: A document that is often used interchangeably with a shipping label, and contains pertinent shipping information, such as origin and destination, shipping method, and tracking ID. Issued by the carrier.
White Label: An item on the shipping label that contains consignee information and sometimes customs declaration information. Includes a barcode with a packet identifier (e.g. CCN = Customer Confirmation Number). The White Label is attached by the merchant and is later replaced with the DSP Label.
Zip Code: A string of numbers that defines a particular geographical zone, such as a street. Used to streamline delivery processes.
从中国向美国进口时应避开的3个主要雷区 美国从中国进口什么？不进口什么？美国人喜欢从中国进口商品——因为产品便宜，质量达标，而且中国工业市场的生产力一直都充足。事实上，在美国的大型市场上，包括亚马逊、eBay和沃尔玛，有30%-50%的卖家是中国人或从中国进口的美国人。然而，从中国进口商品的过程可能很复杂。以下是你必须避开的3个雷区： 1 – 选对供应商 从中国进口到美国的产品，在购买之前，你必须比较来自不同制造商或供应商的同类产品，以确保质量最好，价格最好。首先在阿里巴巴等网站上采购多个产品，直接联系供应商获取报价，并创建同类产品列表，以便比较。阿里巴巴是个不错的进口工具。我们建议经常查看“信用保障”和“金品诚企会员”框，以防止选到不可靠的供应商。你也可以尝试DHgate.com、Made-In-China.com等提供类似服务的网站。同样的流程也适用于选择从中国到美国的货运公司。仔细研究每一家运输公司提供的服务，确保你购买的货物能尽可能快速、无缝、实惠地安全送到目的地。如果跳过这一步，你将可能面临从中国向肯尼亚进口手机、等待发货的时间不合理、或者收到错误或有缺陷的商品等风险（由于语言差距相当大，并且在紧急情况下可能会在包装、运输等方面出错）。 2 – 努力解决“额外成本”问题——进口手续费、税费和关税 想知道如何从中国进口商品并享受最佳性价比？自然，你会想用尽可能少的钱把你的货物从中国运到美国，并通过海关。但从长远来看，采取一些常见做法，比如故意低估产品价值，或将某些产品归到其他类别来避税或减税，可能会让你得不偿失。从中国进口货物到美国时，一定要准备好以下文件，并且要保证信息属实： 美国海关发票 商业发票 装箱单 提货单/航运收据 到货通知 特别许可证 如果填错了这些文件，或经受不住诱惑而伪造文件，你可能会发现需要支付更多本不需要支付的费用。你还可能会受到处罚，比如长时间的延期处理，或者被禁止从中国进口商品到美国。如果你希望尽可能准确地估计可能需要缴纳的税款，请在下次购买前研究2019年从中国到美国的进口税。 大多数航运公司会报给你航运费率，甚至提供航运服务比较。一些工具可以帮助你对产品进行分类，但没有一个工具可以真正承诺完全落地的最终价格。Ladingo是唯一能够提供全部运费信息的工具，包括所有适用的税费和所有门到门成本。有了它，你就不必承担任何隐藏费用风险。 3 – 不了解你的货物 凭空猜测会让你付出很大代价。从中国发货时，你应该确切地了解货物的尺寸和包装类型。是用板条箱、装成货盘，还是只用盒子？这可能会影响到抵达港卸货的成本、燃油附加费，甚至是需要参与送货上门的人数。例如，如果是小物品，一名工人就可以将包裹送到门口，但如果是冰箱或托盘，则可能需要叉车以及两名工人来完成这项工作。这可能会产生意料之外的额外费用。向航运公司提供数据时，数据应尽可能准确。你选用的运输工具/航运公司必须确切知道供应商的包装习惯。 需要帮忙简化从中国到美国的货运? Ladingo免费的完整物流解决方案使得从中国到美国的拼箱和大宗货物进出口变得简单、实惠、无风险，让你可以避开这3大雷区，开始从中国无缝进口货物，并扩大规模。点击此处了解更多。
成功实现国际航运的10个秘诀 Ladingo 队 October 10, 2021 “走出去”为注重增长的企业提供了巨大的潜力。然而，拓展国际业务并不总是一帆风顺，特别是当涉及到国际航运时。语言和文化障碍比比皆是。可能会突然出现不可预知的运输成本，延误也是家常便饭。即使你设法规避这些挑战，当地的清关流程和法规也可能使你的货物跨境运输或向国际商家订购库存以在本国转售变得更加复杂。因此，你可能会发现整个过程让人喘不过气来，令人望而却步。 话虽如此，但只要你有一点决心、毅力并进行一些尽职调查，你就可以克服与“走出去”相关的障碍，快速轻松地开始国际货物运输，并将你的业务提升到新的盈利高度。利用国际航运使业务全球化的好处包括获得更大的客户群和人才库、通过你的产品帮助更多的人、让你的公司获得更多和多样化的投资机会、提高你的品牌声誉等等。 如何才能成功进行国际航运，成为跨境电商巨头？以下是在纷繁复杂的国际航运领域应付自如的10个秘诀，以便帮助你实现大卖、大量运输、扩大业务规模。 1 – 在供应之前先评估需求 在你全力以赴与国际联系人建立合作关系以确保货物进口到你的国家，或向对方国家供应你的产品之前，请确保你想要运输的产品有市场需求。研究每个市场，为进入每个新地区制定策略。如果你的产品有市场需求–很好。如果没有，你将需要设计一个宣传活动，解释为什么每个目标市场的客户需要你的产品，以便在你开始用集装箱装货之前创造这种需求。 2 – 了解哪些物品可以在国际上运输，哪些不可以 每个国家都有自己的规则条例，规定什么可以入境和/或向谁销售，什么不可以。例如，以下物品不得从美国运往任何其他国家：气溶胶、生鲜农产品、香烟、大麻、香水（含酒精）、干冰、指甲油、弹药等。而不能运往美国的物品清单也有一长串。如果有疑问，就研究一下你想要进出的国家的进出口法规，以免被罚款或者被外国海关无限期地拒绝放行。 3 – 提前了解所有付款情况 为了使国际运输成本尽可能低，并避免任何隐性费用，重要的一点就是你要花时间研究一下需要支付哪些费用，以及每项费用是多少。标准费用款项包括货运代理费和最后一英里配送费，以及海关、关税和税费。这些费用取决于货物的大小和重量，以及产品的价值和被运往的目的地国家。请注意，你选择的托运人可能会选择包含额外的费用，如燃油附加费，以及周末配送和送货签字的额外费用，这些费用对你的客户群可能重要，也可能不重要。 为了降低成本，优先考虑与货运代理建立长期的合作关系，而不是一次性的谈判。与他们的合作越多，你的年度运费费率就越低。 4 – 研究你的竞争对手
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